The impact of written corrective feedback on students’ writing performance, self-efficacy, and anxiety


  • Mohammad Hasan Razmi Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman | Iran
  • Mohammad Hossein Ghane Yazd University | Iran


Writing performance, corrective feedback, self-efficacy, anxiety, second language acquisition


This paper investigated the impact of direct unfocused written corrective feedback (WCF) on EFL students’ writing improvement, self-efficacy, and anxiety. To this aim, 52 Iranian male learners were selected as participants by using the Oxford Placement Test and randomly placed in an experimental and a control group. The participants completed a pre-test that included a writing task, the writing self-efficacy questionnaire (WSEQ), and the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI) to assess their writing skill, writing self-efficacy, and writing anxiety, respectively. Having attended 15 sessions of writing instruction in which only the experimental group received WCF, the participants again completed a writing task, the WSEQ, and the SLWAI in the posttest procedure. The results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in all three constructs, indicating that WCF has a positive impact on EFL students’ writing performance, self-efficacy, and anxiety. Implications of the study are presented.


Alizadeh Tari, Z. & Roslin, V., P. (2021). Language learning styles and writing strategies as predictors of writing anxiety among Iranian EFL learners. The Journal of Culture, Humanities and Social Science, 3(1), 12-22.

Alpert, R.& Haber, R. (1960). Anxiety in academic achievement situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61(2), 207–215.

Asif, F. (2017). The anxiety factors among Saudi EFL learners: A study from English language teachers’ perspective.English Language Teaching, 10(6), 160–173.

Aydin, Z.& Yildiz, S. (2014). Using wikis to promote collaborative EFL writing. Language, Learning and Technology,18(1):160-180

Bai, B., Wang, J.& Nie, Y. (2021). Self-efficacy, task values and growth mindset: what has the most predictive power for primary school students’ self-regulated learning in English writing and writing competence in an Asian Confucian cultural context? Cambridge Journal of Education,51 (1), 65-84.

Balta, E. E. (2018). The relationships among writing skills, writing anxiety and metacognitive awareness. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(3), 233-241.

Baskan, A. (2021). The relationship between writing anxiety and writing self-efficacy of students learning Turkish as a foreign language. Journal of Education and Learning, 10 (4), 70-77.

Bayat, N. (2014). The effect of the process writing approach on writing success and anxiety. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 14(3), 1133-1141.

Bitchener, J. (2008). Evidence in support of written corrective feedback. Journal of Second Language Writing, 17 (2), 102–118.

Bitchener, J.& Ferris, D. R. (2012). Written corrective feedback in second

language acquisition and writing. New York: Routledge

Bitchener, J. &Knoch, U. (2009). The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten month investigation. Applied Linguistics, 31 (2), 193-214.

Blankenstein, F. M.V., Saab, N., Rijst, R.M.V.D., Danel, M.S., Berg, A.S.B.D., & Broek, P.W.V.D. (2019). How do self-efficacy beliefs for academic writing and collaboration and intrinsic motivation for academic writing and research develop during an undergraduate research project? Educational Studies, 45(2), 209-225https://doi. 10.1080/03055698.2018.1446326

Budianto, S., Sulistyo, T., Widiastuti,O., Heriyawati, D.& Marhaban, S. (2020). Written corrective feedback across different levels of EFL students’ academic writing proficiency: outcomes and implications. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(2), 472-485

Chandler, J. (2000). The efficacy of error correction for improvement in the accuracy of L2 student writing. Paper presented at the AAAL conference.

Cheng, Y. (2002). Factors associated with foreign language writing anxiety. Foreign Language Annals, 35(6),647 – 656. https://doi.10.1111/j.1944-9720.2002.tb01903.x

Cheng, Y. (2004). A measure of second language writing anxiety: Scale development and preliminary validation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13 (4), 313-335. https://doi.


Cheng, X. L.&Zhang, L. J. (2021a). Teacher written feedback on English as a foreign language learners' writing: Examining native and nonnative teachers' practices in feedback provision. Front. Psychol, 12, 1–16. https://doi. 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.629921.

Cheng, X. L. &Zhang, L. J. (2021b). Sustaining university English as a foreign language learners' writing performance through provision of comprehensive written corrective feedback. Sustainability, 13 (1), 1–22. https://doi. 10.3390/su13158192

Chong, I. (2017). How students’ ability levels influence the relevance and accuracy of their feedback to peers: A case study. Assessing Writing,31, 13–23.

Cocuk, H. E., Yanpar-Yelken, T. & Ozer, O. (2016). The relationship between writing anxiety and writing disposition among secondary school students. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research,63, 335-352. 10.14689/ejer.2016.63.19.

Daly, J. (1978). Writing apprehension and writing competency. Journal of Educational Research, 72, 10–14.

Dowden, T., Pittaway, S., Yost, H. & McCarthy, R. (2013). Students’ perceptions of written feedback in teacher education: ideally feedback is a continuing two-way communication that encourages progress. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 38 (3), 349-362.

Ellis, R. (2013). Corrective feedback in teacher guides and SLA. IranianJournal of Language Teaching Research. 1(3), 1-18.

Esmaeeli, M. & Sadeghi, K. (2020). The effect of direct versus indirect focused written corrective feedback on developing EFL learners’ written and oral skills. Language Related Research, 11 (5), 89-124.

Eysenck, M. W. (1979). Anxiety, learning and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13(4), 363–385. (79)90001-1

Eysenck, M. W. (1982). Attention to arousal, cognition, and performance. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Farjadnasab, A.H. &Khodashenas, M.R. (2017). The effect of written corrective feedback on EFL students’ writingaccuracy. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2 (2), 30-42. https://doi.10.18869/acadpub.ijree.2.2.30

Ferris, D. R. (1995). Can advanced ESL students be taught to correct their most serious and frequent errors? CATESOL Journal, 8, 41-62.

Gass, S. (2003). Input and interaction, In C. J. Doughty, M. L Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 104-129). Oxford, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ghane, M. H. & Mazdayasna, G. (2022). The impact of genre-based instruction on academic writing and self-efficacy: The case of graduate students’ thesis proposal. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 14 (29), 99-117.

Ghane, M. H., Mazdayasna, G. & Jabbari, A. (2021). Promoting genre knowledge of writing M.A. research proposal: The case of EFL students of applied linguistics. Iranian Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10(4), 36-53.

Ghonsooli, B. & Elahi, M. (2010). Learners' self-efficacy in reading and its relation to foreign language reading anxiety and reading achievement. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 2 (217), 4-68.

Grenner, E., Johansson, V., Weijer, J.V.D.&Sahlén, B. (2021). Effects of intervention on self-efficacy and text quality in elementary school students’ narrative writing. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 46(1), 1-10.

Hamidnia, M., Ketabi, S.& Amirian, Z. (2020). Feeding written corrective feedback forward: English language learners' writing improvement in a portfolio-keeping atmosphere. Teaching English Language, 14(1), 31-71.

Han, J. & Hiver, P. (2018). Genre-based L2 writing instruction and writing-specific psychological factors: The dynamics of change. Journal of Second Language Writing, 40, 44-59.

Han, Y.& Hyland, F. (2015). Exploring learner engagement with written corrective feedback in a Chinese tertiary EFL classroom. Journal of Second Language Writing, 30, 31–44. https://doi .10.1016/j. jslw.2015.08.002.

Horwitz, E.K. (2010). Foreign and second language anxiety. Language Teaching, 43(2), 154 -167. https://doi. 10.1017/S026144480999036X

Huerta, M., Goodson, P. Beigi, M., & Chlup, D. (2017). Graduate students as academic writers: Writing anxiety, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence. Higher Education Research & Development, 36(4), 716-729.

Hyland, K. (1996). Second language writing. Cambridge University Press.

Hyland, K. (2013). Writing in the university: Education, knowledge and reputation. Language Teaching , 46(1),1 – 18. https://doi. 10.1017/S0261444811000036

Hyland, K. & Hyland. F. (2019). Feedback in Second Language Writing: Contexts and Issues. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge university Press.

Karim, K.& Nassaji, H. (2019). The effects of written corrective feedback: A critical synthesis of past and present research. Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 3(1). 28-52.

Lee, I.& Coniam, D. (2013). Introducing assessment for learning for EFL writing in an assessment of learning examination-driven system in Hong Kong. Journal of Second Language Writing, 22(1), 34–50. https://doi. 10.1016/j.jslw.2012.11.003

Leki, I. (2006). ‘You cannot ignore’: L2 graduate students’ response to disciplinebased written feedback. In K. Hyland & F. Hyland (Eds.), Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp. 266–286). Cambridge University Press.

Li, H. H., Zhang, L. J. &Parr, J. M. (2020). Small-group student talk before individual writing in tertiary English writing classrooms in China: Nature and insights. Front. Psychol, 11, 1–16. https://doi. 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.570565

Markham, R. & Darke, S. (1991). The effects of anxiety on verbal and spatial task performance. Australian Journal of Psychology, 43(2), 107–111.

Mills, N., Pajares, F.& Herron, C. (2006). A reevaluation of the role of anxiety: self-efficacy , anxiety, and their relation to reading and listening proficiency. Foreign Language annals, 39 (2), 276-295.

Mohebbi, F., Azarnoosh, M.& AbdolmanafiRokni, S. J. (2016). The relationship between EFL learners’ anxiety and writing complexity. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching & Research, 7(14), 47-67

MousapourNegari, G. &Talebi Rezazadeh, O. (2012). Too nervous to write? The realtionshipbetween anxiety and EFL writing. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(12), 2578-2586.

Naghdipour, B. (2016). English writing instruction in Iran: Implications for second language writing curriculum and pedagogy. Journal of Second Language Writing, 32, 81–87.


Ortega, L. (2012). Epilogue: Exploring L2 writing-SLA interfaces. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21, 404–415

Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation and achievement in writing: a review of the literature. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 139-158.

Pajares, F., Hartley, J.&Valiante, G. (2019). Response format in writing Self-

Efficacy assessment: greater discrimination increases prediction. Measurement and

Evaluation in Counseling andDevelopment, 33(4), 214- 221.

Pajares, F. & Johnson, M.J. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs and the writing performance of entering high school students. Psychology in the schools, 33 (2), 163-175.

Rao, Z. (2007). Training in brainstorming and developing writing skills. ELT Journal, 61(2), 100-106.

Reinders, H., &Mohebbi, H. (2018). Written corrective feedback: The road ahead. Language Teaching Research Quarterly, 6, 1–6.

Rouhi, A., Dibah, M. & Mohebbi, H. (2020). Assessing the effect of giving and receiving written corrective feedback on improving L2 writing accuracy: does giving and receiving feedback have fair mutual benefit? Asian. J. Second. Foreign. Lang. Educ, 5. https;//

Ruegg, R. (2018). The effect of peer and teacher feedback on changes in EFL students' writing self-efficacy. The language Learning Journal, 46 (2), 87-102. https://doi. 10. 1080/09571736.2014.958190.

Scovel, T. (1978). The effect of affect on foreign language learning: A review of anxiety research. Language Learning, 28(1), 129-142.

Shang, H. (2013). Factors associated with English as a foreign language university students’ writing anxiety. International Journal of English Language Teaching, 1(1), 1-12.

Shang, H. (2013). The relationship between writing anxiety and EFL university students’ writing proficiency. The International Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 19(1), 35-44. doi:10.18848/2327-7955/CGP/v19i01/48701.

Sökmen, Y. (2019). The role of self-efficacy in the relationshipbetween the learning environment and student engagement. Educational Studies, 47(1), 19-37.

Storch. N.& Tapper. J. (2009). The impact of an EAP course on postgraduate writing. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 8, 207-233.

Taffs, K.H.& Holt, J.I. (2013). Investigating student use and value of e-learning resources to develop academic writing within the discipline of environmental science. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 37(4), 500-514.

Truscott J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46 (2), 327–369.

Tsiritakis, L.K., Vassilaki. E., Spantidakis , L. &Stavrou, N. A. M. (2017). The examination of the effects of writing strategy-based procedural facilitative environments on students’ English foreign language writing anxiety levels. Front. Psychol,7, 2074. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02074

Woodrow, L. (2011). College English writing affect: self-efficacy and anxiety. System, 39(4), 510-522.

Yahya, M. (2013). Measuring speaking anxiety among speech communication course students at the Arab-American university of Jenin (AAUJ). European Social Sciences Research Journal, 1(3), 229–248.

Young, D. J. (1999). Giving priority to the language learner first. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign languageand second language learning: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere (pp. 241–247). McGraw-Hill.

Zhang, X. (2019). Exploring the relationship between college students' writing anxiety and the pedagogical use of online resources. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16.,s41239-019-0149-y.

Zhang, Z. (2022). Promoting student engagement with feedback: insights from collaborative pedagogy and teacher feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 47 (4), 540-555. https://doi.10.1080/02602938.2021.1933900.

Zimmerman, B. J.& Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31(4), 845- 862.



How to Cite

Razmi, M. H., & Ghane, M. H. . (2024). The impact of written corrective feedback on students’ writing performance, self-efficacy, and anxiety. Journal of Writing Research. Retrieved from